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洛興雅人(Rohingya)是世界上最大的、沒有國家的民族,居住緬甸幾世代的他們,與緬甸人之間存在著深遠的歷史仇恨,至今未被緬甸接納。八月底,洛興雅反抗軍在緬甸若開幫攻擊政府軍,緬甸軍方開始對洛興雅人進行大規模滅村,超過37萬名洛興雅人逃往孟加拉。紐約時報批評此為「諾貝爾和平獎得主之恥(A Nobel Peace Prize Winner's Shame)」,歷史糾葛與洛興雅人的處境,尚未見到曙光。

進入本文前請想一想,這些單字英文怎麼說: (A) 逃難 (B) 不加選擇的 (C) 禁閉管制

More than 370,000 Rohingya have (A) fled from a military crackdown in Myanmar, a crisis called "a textbook example of ethnic cleansing" by the United Nations human rights chief. The refugees are seeking sanctuary in Bangladesh. "Arrivals say the military, and some armed civilians empowered by security forces, continue to burn down Rohingya villages and kill (B) indiscriminately… New reports claim the Myanmar military has begun laying landmines along the border, and that soldiers have been shooting unarmed civilians even as they try to flee." - Time

超過37萬的洛興雅人因軍方鎮壓而逃離緬甸,聯合國人權理事會主席稱此為「種族清洗的教科書範例」。難民在孟加拉尋求庇護。 「抵達難民表示,緬甸軍方和武裝平民,不斷燒毀洛興雅村落與無差別殺人… 最新報告稱,緬甸軍方已開始於邊界埋設地雷,士兵射擊嘗試逃離的非武裝平民。」(Time報導)

 

Rohingya are a Muslim ethnic group who have lived in Rakhine, Myanmar, for generations. An estimated one million Rohingya lived there before the exodus, but even then they were a minority.

洛興雅是穆斯林民族,居住於緬甸洛開邦已幾世代。這次大舉逃離前的居住人數,估計有一百萬人,儘管如此,他們在當地仍是少數民族。

 

"A law passed in 1982 denied them citizenship…this limited the Rohingya's access to schools and healthcare, and their ability to move in and out of the country. The government in Rakhine at times has also enforced a two-child limit on Rohingya families and has restricted interfaith marriage." - The New York Times

1982年,緬甸通過法律,否決洛興雅人的公民身分…此舉限制了洛興雅人受教育,獲得健保,與搬入、搬離緬甸的權利。洛開邦政府不時強制規定,洛興雅家庭只可生育兩個孩子、禁止跨宗教的婚姻。 (紐約時報報導)

 

"The minority group has endured decades of discrimination and neglect, which worsened in 2012 after Rohingya clashed with Buddhists in Burma's western Rakhine State. More than 100,000 were then (C) confined to camps where their movement, access to jobs and education were severely restricted." - The Washington Post

這個少數民族遭受數十年的歧視與忽視,2012年洛興雅人與洛開邦佛教徒衝突後,情勢更加惡化。超 過10萬人被管制於難民營,活動、工作與教育皆受 到嚴格限制。(華盛頓郵報報導)

 

"The violence began on 25 August when the Rohingya militants attacked police posts in northern Rakhine, killing 12 security personnel."

暴力始於八月二十五日,洛興雅激進份子攻擊洛開 邦北部警察崗位,殺害12名保安人員。

 

"Aung San Suu Kyi, Myanmar's (1) de facto leader, is facing mounting criticism for failing to protect the Rohingya, and on Monday exiled Tibetan Buddhist leader the Dalai Lama added his voice, urging her "to (2) reach out to all sections of society to try to restore friendly relations". - BBC

緬甸的實質領袖翁山蘇姬因未能保護洛興雅人,面臨的批評不斷增加,本周一,西藏流亡政府領袖達賴喇嘛亦催促翁山蘇姬「對社會的各個部分表達善意,並試圖以和平與和解的精神,恢復人民之間的友好關係。」(BBC報導)

 

【常用字彙】

1. De facto 事實上、實際上 源自拉丁文,可做形容詞、副詞
This was interpreted as a de facto recognition of the area's independence.
此舉被解讀為實際承認了該區的獨立。

2. Reach out 往前、往上伸以進行接觸;嘗試溝通 I tried to reach out to her but she doesn't want to have anything to do with me.
我嘗試與她溝通,但她不想和我有任何關連。

 

註:根據維基百科,2012年5月三名洛興雅人姦殺緬甸女性,佛教徒民眾攻擊載滿洛興雅人的公車,導致10名洛興雅人死亡,隨後雙方展開一連串互相攻擊。至同年10月,緬甸官方統計82人死亡、22587名居民失去家園,其中21700為穆斯林,4665間房屋因人為縱火而毀壞。


 

文/Nikki Lu

本文收錄於英語島English Island 2017年11月號
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